There are generally 3 types of guidance and counseling in schools— educational, vocational, and personal-social. In this post, we will be zooming into educational guidance and counseling — its scope, objectives, and techniques.
Nature of Educational Guidance
Educational guidance refers to the support and assistance provided by educators or guidance counselors to students in their academic and personal development.
The main goal of educational guidance in schools is to help students achieve their full potential by identifying their strengths and weaknesses and providing them with the necessary resources and tools to succeed academically.
This type of guidance includes helping students with course selection, career planning, and college applications. It may also involve providing support and counseling to students who are experiencing personal or social issues that may be affecting their academic performance.
In addition, educational guidance in schools may involve helping students develop important life skills such as time management, study skills, and decision-making skills.
Overall, educational guidance in schools aims to support students in their academic and personal growth and help them achieve their goals.
Failures in examinations and tests, poor standards or assignments, and unsatisfactory involvement in academic work by students are some of the problems often handled by counselors offering educational guidance.
Definitions of Educational Guidance by Different Authors
According to Brewer, educational guidance is “a conscious effort to assist in the intellectual growth of an individual.”
According to Arthur A. Jones, educational guidance can be defined “as the assistance given to pupils in their choices and adjustment with relation to schools, curriculum, courses, and school life.”
Ruth Strang defines educational guidance as a process “intended to aid the individual in choosing an appropriate program and in making progress in it.”
According to Myers, educational guidance is “a process concerned with bringing about— between an individual pupil with his distinctive characteristics on the one hand, and different groups of opportunities and requirements on the other— a favorable setting for the pupil’s development or education.”
Dunsmoor and Miller define educational guidance as being “primarily concerned with the student’s success in his educational career. It relates to the student’s adjustment to school and the preparation and carrying out of suitable educational plans in keeping with his educational needs, abilities, and career interests.”
Objectives of Educational Guidance
The following are some of the objectives of educational guidance:
- To monitor the academic progress of the students.
- To acquaint the students with the prescribed curriculum.
- To identify the academically gifted, backward, creative, and other categories of special learners.
- To assist students in getting information about further education.
- To diagnose the learning difficulties of students and help them overcome the same.
- To help the student in the adjustment to the school environment, the peer group, and the school curriculum
- To assess the individuals through psychological tests and non-testing techniques
- To assess the needs of the individual for educational guidance
- To prepare a plan for rendering guidance services according to the needs of students
- To assist the child to secure information regarding the possibility of further schooling
- To help the child to know the purpose and function of different types of schools
- To provide detailed information regarding eligibility criteria for various courses and training programs
Other Objectives of Educational Guidance include:
- To assist the pupils to understand their strengths and weaknesses
- To help the students in developing good study habits.
- To help the children in the selection of subjects following their needs, aptitude, and interest
- To help the pupils in selecting the co-curricular activities
- To assist the children in using their leisure time most profitably.
- To help the child to participate in out-of-class educational activities in which he can develop leadership and other social values
- To help the child in the building of a good social relationship
- To help the child in knowing the availability of scholarships, stipends, loans, etc.
- To monitor the academic achievement of students and help teachers in dealing with high and low achievers
- To assist the students with special needs
- To help parents to deal with their children, especially with special needs
Scope of Educational Guidance
Different activities come together for successful educational guidance. Just like the 7 core guidance services make up the scope of guidance and counseling as a whole, the scope of educational guidance includes:
Appraisal & Assessment
To be able to guide a student toward academic excellence, the guidance personnel must understand the strengths, potential, and weaknesses of the student. This is possible through appraisal and assessment of the student.
The scope of educational guidance also covers effective placement of the students in class that best suits their potential based on th3 findings from the appraisal. Students are distributed to the sciences, humanities, or arts as a form of educational guidance.
Similar to placement, the school guidance personnel also guides the student in choosing which subjects are best for them based on their career choice. This particular service overlaps with vocational guidance.
As students continue to progress in their academic work, challenges will surely rise. Some of these include examination anxiety, poor time management, poor study habits, family disturbances, and so on. The school counselor must also offer counseling services to students to help them overcome these issues.
The Roles of The Counselor in Educational Guidance
The roles of the school counselor in educational guidance include:
- The appraisal of the students with reference to their capacities.
- The exploration of his vocational potentialities and interests.
- The obtaining of information about all kinds of educational resources in the school and the community.
- The selection of a training center that provides educational opportunities in keeping with the student’s capacities and interests.
- The detection leading to the correction of conditions that are interfering with the student’s capacities and interests.
Educational Guidance at Different Stages of Education
At this stage, the child is a beginner. No specialized service is required. The only consideration as far as educational guidance is concerned is that all efforts be made to help develop a positive and healthy outlook toward life.
Also, Educational guidance at the elementary stage is to prepare children for the secondary stage.
At this stage, the child is in dire need of proper educational guidance. It is all the more required at this stage because the child can think and is aware of the surroundings. The four scopes of educational guidance mentioned above must be intensified at this stage since it is the transition between elementary and tertiary education.
At the tertiary level of education, there isn’t so much specialized educational guidance to be done. Because all students have class advisors that guide them in making informed choices regarding their courses and managing occurrences like indigence or failure.
The absence of adequate educational guidance in a school will produce a group of students who went through school without maximizing all the opportunities that were available to them.
School administrators and counselors must continue to walk with students at each stage of their academic journey, seeing that they make the best decisions based on their peculiarities.
Olusegun Iyejare is a career coach and certified counselor. He helps individuals discover and maximize their potential to live satisfying lives regardless of obvious limitations holding them back.