13 Factors Affecting Women’s Participation in Politics in Nigeria and Solutions

The advancement and development of any country partly depends on the involvement of women in politics. However, there are a number of issues in Nigeria that prevent women from actively participating in politics. 

This article examines and discusses 13 elements that have an impact on women’s political participation in Nigeria. Additionally, it will offer potential answers to deal with these difficulties and advance gender equality in politics.

Factors Affecting Women’s Participation in Politics in Nigeria and Solutions

Infographic showing 10 factors affecting women's participation in politics in Nigeria

Lack of Access to Education

In order to empower people and encourage their active participation in a variety of spheres, including politics, education is essential. Sadly, there are many women in Nigeria who have difficulty getting access to high-quality education.

The underrepresentation of women in politics is mostly due to the lack of educational options and gender differences in school enrolment. 

The government should give the establishment of inclusive and open-access educational systems for girls and women a top priority in order to address this problem.

Related: 15 Problems Affecting Education in Nigeria and Solutions

Cultural and Social Barriers

Women’s political participation in Nigeria faces major obstacles due to sociocultural norms and practices. Women’s freedom, decision-making ability, and participation in public affairs are frequently constrained by traditional beliefs and conventions.

These obstacles can be removed by launching awareness-raising efforts, advancing gender equality in cultural norms, and enlisting local leaders in the cause of women’s rights and political equality.

Bias and Gender Stereotypes

Women in politics face discrimination and bias due to entrenched gender preconceptions. Because of cultural expectations, women frequently experience bias and discrimination, which restricts their leadership capacity. 

Targeted initiatives to educate the public, advance gender equality, and promote the representation of women as viable and competent political leaders are necessary to combat these prejudices.

A scarcity of economic resources

Women’s ability to participate in politics is disproportionately hampered by economic obstacles including poverty and a lack of resources.

Many women cannot afford the huge financial investments required for political participation and campaigns.

This difficulty can be lessened by implementing financial assistance programs, offering microfinance options, and guaranteeing equal access to economic resources.

Political intimidation and violence

Women are deterred from getting involved in politics by the toxic environment that political violence and intimidation generate. Threats, sex abuse, and physical violence against women erode their sense of security and self-worth.

To address and avoid such instances, it is essential to implement stringent legislation against political violence, create safe spaces for women in politics, and offer support networks.

Absence of Political Party Support

The political environment is significantly shaped by political parties, which also provide support for aspiring politicians. However, because of institutional constraints and gender bias, women frequently fail to get enough support from political parties.

Parties should implement affirmative action policies to boost the representation of women and actively encourage their involvement in order to remedy this, such as quotas and reserved seats.

Related: 10 Importance of Democracy in Nigeria

Low Representation in Bodies that Make Decisions

Women have less of a voice in decision-making institutions like municipal and national government because of the underrepresentation of women in these institutions.

Women can be empowered to make valuable contributions to the decision-making process by implementing gender quotas and guaranteeing fair representation in these institutions.

Inadequate Legal Frameworks

Women’s participation is hampered by the lack of adequate legal frameworks that support gender equality in politics.

Nigeria must pass and uphold legislation ensuring equal political rights, preventing discrimination, and encouraging the representation of women in elected positions.

Lack of Female Role Models

For aspiring female politicians to be inspired and motivated, there must be female role models. In order to encourage more women to participate in politics and seek leadership positions, Nigeria should actively promote and honor successful women in politics as role models.

These role models should be studied in schools to stir the hearts of other young girls and show them what is possible.

Limited Media Coverage and Representation

Political discourse and public opinion are significantly shaped by the media. However, the media frequently underrepresents or inaccurately portrays the opinions and experiences of women.

It can increase their exposure and promote greater political engagement to support fair and balanced media coverage of female politicians and their problems.

Traditional and Religious Beliefs

Social perceptions toward women’s duties and political engagement are influenced by religious and traditional beliefs.

It is necessary to involve religious and community leaders in discussions promoting gender equality and contesting prejudiced readings of religious texts in order to overcome these hurdles.

Related: Roles of Religion in Dismantling Apartheid in South Africa

Family Responsibilities and Gender Roles

Domestic and caregiving duties fall disproportionately on women due to traditional gender roles. Women are discouraged from actively participating in politics since it becomes difficult to balance family responsibilities with political ambitions.

Women can pursue political careers by lobbying for legislation that assists families, advocating for more favourable household responsibility sharing, and providing accessible childcare facilities.

Lack of Confidence and Self-Esteem

Due to societal constraints and self-doubt, many women lack the confidence and self-esteem to compete in politics. 

Women can be empowered to overcome these barriers and actively participate in politics by developing their self-confidence through leadership training programs, mentorship opportunities, and support networks.

Related: 10 Political Factors Affecting Businesses in Nigeria and Solutions


For Nigeria to achieve gender equality and inclusive government, women’s participation in politics is essential. An enabling environment that promotes and supports women’s active participation in political decision-making must address the 13 issues covered in this article. 

Nigeria can unleash the unrealized potential of women in politics and open the door to a more just and prosperous future by putting the offered solutions into practice.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. How can women overcome socio-cultural barriers to participate in politics?

Women can overcome socio-cultural barriers by advocating for gender equality, engaging community leaders, and raising awareness through campaigns and education.

2. What steps can political parties take to support women’s participation?

Political parties should adopt affirmative action measures, such as quotas and reserved seats, to increase women’s representation and actively promote their involvement.

3. How can the media contribute to enhancing women’s political participation?

The media can contribute by providing fair and balanced coverage of women politicians and their issues, promoting their visibility, and fostering public support.

4. What role can education play in promoting women’s participation in politics?

Education plays a crucial role in empowering women and fostering their active participation in politics by providing them with knowledge, skills, and confidence.

5. What can individuals do to support women’s political participation?

Individuals can support women’s political participation by challenging gender stereotypes, promoting gender equality, and advocating for women’s rights in their communities and workplaces.

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